“Collection of semen from male, processed, evaluated in lab and then
transferred to female reproductive tract by artificial means for the
purpose of conception is called artificial insemination.” It
is most widely accepted technique worldwide for the genetic
improvement in animals.
Uses and Advantages of
increases the efficiency of bull usage:
In AI program, the proven bull is used. These bulls are on the
pedigree or progeny record based. In a breeding season a good
quality bull can
maximum serve to 100 females. But
with AI thousands of females can be inseminated. So efficiency of
bulls’ usage increases.
It increases the potential for genetic selection:
In natural insemination, bull serves 100 cows; 60-70 % is successful
so for next selection only 60-70 calves are there. In case of AI
It decreases the inbreeding:
In natural insemination, there is increase inbreeding and that is
dangerous because lethal genes are transmitted from generation to
generation. With AI inbreeding is reduced.
It is cost effective:
To keep a bull more expenses are required. So if we use AI that is
AI technique increases the safety of animals:
It controls the early mating or pregnancy. Premature mating leads to
dystokia at the time of birth which may also lead to the death of
animal. If male is mature and heifer is young one, there are chances
of permanent injury to heifer when male jumps. This can be avoided
AI increases the safety of herd man:
By using AI there is no concept of injury to herd man by bull.
It decreases the transmission of disease:
Diseases transmitted by coitus like trichomoniasis, brucellosis,
compylobacterosis are avoided.
AI technique helps in diagnosis of male infertility:
For evaluation of bull there is mating behavior and semen quality.
Natural mating is good but poor quality semen will be diagnosed
later after 5-6 months by pregnancy testing. While in case of AI
after each collection the semen is checked for fertility so that
diagnosis is earlier and reliable. So it helps in screening of male
It helps to provide service at doorstep:
Only semen container is taken to the place where needed and is
The good quality semen can be stored for years even after death of bull.
Sex of offsprings can be controlled by using sexed semen.
Technique of AI
Rectovaginal Cervical Fixation Method
Universal and most commonly used method.
First prerequisite is securing animal in crush
Preparation of operator (inseminator): proper dungaree, gum
boots, sleeve lubricated
Thawing of straw at 37 oC in water bath for 30
After thawing, dry the straw with sterilized tissue paper
(indication of thawing is bubble present in straw)
Hold straw in vertical position with cotton plug in downward
direction and PVC end at upper end and cut in vertical direction
of PCV end.
Insert in AI gun and put plastic sheath on it and confirm the
union of plastic sheath and gun.
Make hand cup shaped and insert into rectum.
Remove feacal material from rectum
Palpate genital organs and locate cervix
Introduce AI gun into the vagina at 30-40o angle. By
left hand is in rectum make sure that cervix is located and
Place thumb at external oss and then inseminate by directing AI
rod in external oss.
Place semen in body of uterus (it should not be traumatized).