Pak Dairy Info
Pakistan's 1st Online Dairy Farming Guide

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Contents

Introduction

Breeds

Selection of Animals

Farm Building

Management

Record Keeping

Sanitation & Hygiene

Nutrition

Reproduction

Breeding

Health

Body Condition Scoring

Milk Quality

Feasibility

Terminologies

Directory

Picture Gallery

Hygienic Milk Production

Milk containing dirt, dust, foreign materials, high bacterial count and with off flavour is called a contaminated milk. Different sources of contamination of milk are given below:

UDDER:
Unsanitary conditions of milking barns and bedding of the animal causes bacterial growth. Such bacteria may enter into the udder through teet canal, which causes infection of udder like mastitis and it ultimately results in contamination of milk.

To avoid contamination from udder, udder must be cleaned before milking. Same towel should not be used for more than one udders. Initial squirts of milk should be discarded as it contains high bacterial count. For better health of udder complete milking should be done.

Exterior of Animal’s Body:
Bacteria present on the animal body may enter in to the milk at the time of milking. Maintenance of clean skin, washing flank and udder with clean damp cloth before milking reduces the contamination from this source.


 

Milking Barns:
Milking barns with good ventilation and neat flooring avoids contamination.

Flies and other Vermins:
External parasites like flies, lice, mosquitoes etc. may have their entry in to milk. So care should be taken to avoid these parasites from the barn by spraying fly spoors or by fly traps. Breeding places for these parasites like stagnant water, moist atmosphere etc. should be avoided.

Milker:
Milker is directly responsible in producing good quality milk. Dirty hands and clothing of the milker may be the source of contamination. Several bacterial diseases may transmit from the milker, or handler to the consumer through milk. Persons suffering from diseases like T.B, Typhoid fever, diphtheria may not be employed for milking. Dirty habits like smoking, drinking should be avoided. Milker should cover his head while milking and his nail must be trimmed.

Utensils:
Utensils are the containers or equipments in which the milk is handled, processed, stored or transported. Clean sanitized, smooth, copper free and dry utensils may be used for handling milk.

Milking Methods:
Wet hand milking and fisting causes contamination of milk. Wet hand milking makes the teats look harsh and dry chokes, cracks and sores appear which causes contamination. Twisting causes damages to the teat tissue which leads to udder infection. So dry hand milking should be practiced to avoid contamination of milk.

Recommendations for Clean Milk Production

  • The animal should be washed before milking.

  • Teat dipping should be performed before milking

  • Hands of the milker should be clean and dry. Wet hand milking may result in high bacterial count in the milk.

  • Nails of hands of the milker should be well trimmed.

  • Milker should be free from diseases.

  • Dusty feed like rice polish should not be fed to the animal at the time of milking.

  • Milking barns should be well ventilated and free from flies.

  • Utensils used for milking should be clean, stanitized, smooth and copper free.

  • Flavour producing feeds should be fed only after milking so that flavours will not appear in milk.

  • The hind legs and the switch of the animal should be tightened with the help of a milk man’s rope at the time of milking.

  • Milk should be kept in cool place to maintain the flavour and keeping quality.

  • Milk should be covered with lids to avoid dust dirt,  hot, or cold, day light or strong artificial light to decrease milk quality. Raw milk with not exceeding 2,00,000 specific count in one ml of milk can be graded as very good raw milk.

 

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