During the last few weeks of pregnancy there
is a tendency of prolapsed of vagina which may be caused by
constipation, mineral deficiency and debility. Balanced and laxative
rations should be fed to maintain the normal tone of the
reproductive tract. Some time udder edema occurs before calving.
This can be avoided by moderate exercise for a half an hour, two to
three times per day. Massaging the udder for a few minutes is also
helpful. Use of diuretics and prepartum milking may be helpful in
Isolate the pregnant animal 8-10 days before
the expected date of calving and keep it in a clean well bedded, dry
and disinfected maternity pen. The animal should be watched closely
as calving time approaches at least every two to three hours.
A good calving environment reduces the
exposure of cows and newborn calves to infectious disease.
A clean and comfortable area that provides cows with good footing
minimizes the potential for injuries. Calving areas should be
landscaped to allow for adequate drainage. Shade structures are
Calves are usually born without assistance.
Any abnormality in their presentation requires immediate attention
by a competent person to correct the position of the calf so that it
can be delivered. Strict sanitation must be observed during
After removal of calf, milk animal it will
help in removal of placenta. Placenta is normally expelled within 2
to 6 hours after calving. If placenta fails to be expelled with 12
hours it is considered retained
placenta. In case of retained placenta veterinarian should be called
for its removal.
After normal birth, the dam is alert and
willing to eat and drink within one or two hours of calving. Warm
water and some wheat bran should be offered to dam after calving.
It is necessary to encourage the dairy animals
to rise and to move to the manger for feeding after calving,
especially on the day of calving and the first 2 days after calving.
The animal should be closely watched for health problems after
calving. In addition to observing feed intake and milk production,
rectal temperature and ketone levels should be monitored daily.
having health problems should be identified and treated accordingly,
whereas healthy animals can join the general population 3 to
4 days postpartum.