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Pakistan's 1st Online Dairy Farming Guide

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Contents

Introduction

Breeds

Selection of Animals

Farm Building

Management

Record Keeping

Sanitation & Hygiene

Nutrition

Reproduction

Breeding

Health

Body Condition Scoring

Milk Quality

Feasibility

Terminologies

Directory

Picture Gallery

Concentrates

Concentrates are high in engergy and protein, low in fibre and highly digestible. Being the expensive part of feed these are used mostly in small quantities as supplement. Concentrates are of two types: energy rich concentrates and protein rich concentrates. Protein rich concentrates further differentiated on the basis of their origin as plant origin and animal origin.


 

Energy Rich Concentrates:

Cereal grains (wheat, maize, barley, oats, sorghum, rice), wheat bran, rice polishing, molasses, and sugar beet pulp are characterized as energy rich concentrates. Although cereal grains are mainly used as human food and not included in the feed of dairy animals but their by products like rice polishing, maize bran and wheat bran are commonly used as animal feed.

Molasses is by product of sugar industry. It is a thick viscous material which is high insoluble carbohydrates and some minerals. Although molasses is a cheap and energy rich feed but still it is not commonly used by local farmers. Molasses can be included in the diet by mixing it with other concentrates, spraying it on dry roughages or providing it as a free lick or as solidified molasses urea block. The palatability and consumption of poor quality roughages are increased by the use of molasses.

Fats and oils contain about 2.25 times as much energy as carbohydrates or proteins. Due to their cost, fats and oils are not routinely used for livestock feeding.

maize grains  oat grains  rice grains
Maize Grains                                   Oat Grains                              Rice Grains

wheat grains  sorghum grains  wheat bran
 Wheat Grains                        Sorghum Grains                  Wheat Bran

 molasses

Molasses

Protein Rich Concentrate:
Protein rich concentrates are derived from plants and animals. Protein concentrates of plant origin are mostly by products of the oil extraction industry. Oilcakes are produced when oil from seed is extracted mechanically while oil meals are the byproducts of the solvent extraction process. Compared to oil meals oilcakes are low in protein and high in residual fat. They generally include the fibrous part of seeds. Among the available oilcakes, cottonseed cake and maize oilcake have high protein value for ruminants due to their low ruminal degradability as compared to mustard seed cake which is highly degradable. Generally all animal origin proteins are less degradable in the rumen and therefore are good sources of protein for ruminants. These include blood meal, fish meal, bone meal, meat meal, feather meal. But concentrates of animal origin are normally not recommended in ruminant's feeding.

cotton seed cake, khal banola  maize oil cake, khal makai  mustard seed cake  fish meal
Cotton Seed Cake                Maize Oil Cake         Mustard Seed Cake                  Fish Meal      
 

blood meal  bone meal  feather meal  meat meal
  Blood Meal                       Bone Meal                                   Feather Meal                                Meat Meal            

 

  Nutritive Values of Concentrates 
 

Name of Concentrate  

DM (%)

CP(%)

EE(%)

CF(%)

Ash(%)

NFE(%)

Mustardseed cake

91.7

32.4

9.6

19.8

12.0

26.2

Cottonseed cake

91.9

23.4

8.8

27.4

6.8

33.6

Maize oilcake

94.6

16.5

12.1

9.3

1.6

60.5

Wheat bran

89.7

14.5

3.5

8.8

4.1

68.7

Rice bran

89.7

8.2

7.7

13.0

17.2

53.9

Wheat bread

89.7

14.9

3.5

8.8

4.1

68.7

Maize gluten feed

87.9

12.5

10.6

12.7

1.0

63.2

Maize gluten meal 30%

90.9

26.2

1.8

8.7

6.7

56.6

Maize gluten feed 60%

91.5

54.7

3.4

2.6

1.5

37.8

Cottonseed meal

92.2

36.7

8.7

15.4

7.2

32.0

Guar meal

93.2

44.3

5.7

12.2

1.5

36.3

Soybean meal

91.8

48.4

2.8

7.2

8.5

33.1

Sunflower meal

91.1

35.5

1.1

19.1

8.6

35.5

Rapeseed meal

96.7

35.7

8.6

12.4

7.5

35.8

Fish meal

90.7

56.3

8.7

0.9

19.9

14.2

Blood meal

92.1

54.5

1.5

0.9

15.8

27.3

 

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