leave milk in udder; otherwise next time there will be decrease in
milk. Increasing milking frequency from two times a day to three
times daily may increase milk production by about 2.5 to 3.5 litres per
Cow must be bred upto 60 days after calving
for next calf. For this purpose proper heat detection is required.
When animal come into heat, call AI technician for insemination.
Lactation period of animal is divided into
Phase 1. 0-70 Days after calving (Early Lactation):
During this phase milk production increases
Phase 2. 70-140 days after calving
(Peak Lactation): During this phase animal has peak production.
Phase 3. 140-305 days after calving (Mid and late
lactation): During this phase milk production declining and
reaches the lowest. After this phase dry period starts.
Basically there are two methods of milking:
hand milking and machine milking.
Stripping and full-hand milking are the two
commonly used methods of hand
Stripping consists of firmly seizing the teat
at its base between
the thumb and forefinger and drawing them down the entire length of
the teat pressing it simultaneously to cause the milk to flow down
in a stream. The process is repeated in quick succession. Both hands
may be used, each holding
a different teat, stripping alternately.
The full-hand method comprises holding the whole teat in the
fist, fingers encircling the teat. The base of the teat is closed in
the ring formed by the thumb and fore finger so that milk trapped in
the teat sinus may not slip back into the gland cistern.
Simultaneously, teat is squeezed between
the middle, ring and little fingers and the hollow of palm, thus,
milk out. This process should be repeated in quick succession. By
maintaining a quick succession of alternate compressions and
relaxations the alternate streams of milk from the two
teats sound like one continuous stream. Many milkers tend to bend
in, against the teat while milking. This practice should be avoided
as it injures the teat tissues.
Full-hand milking removes milk quicker than stripping because of no
of time in changing the position of the hand. Cows with large teats
and buffaloes are milked by full-hand method; but stripping has to
be adopted for cows with smaller teats. Full-hand method is superior
to stripping as it simulates the natural suckling process by calf.
Stripping causes more irritation to teats due to repeated sliding of
fingers on teats; and so discomfort to cows. In spite of these
drawbacks when all milk that is available
is drawn out by full-hand method, stripping should be resorted to
milk the animal completely; the last drawn milk is called strippings
and is richer in fat.
The hands should be perfectly dry while
milking because wet-hand milking makes the teats look harsh and dry
chafes, cracks and sores appear, which are painful to animal.
In modern dairy farming cows are milked
through machine. The working principle of the milking machine is
imitating the calf suckling. The milk is extracted in a rubber liner
applied on the teat with a lower pressure (vacuum) than the
surrounding atmospheric pressure. In order to avoid damage on the
teat the liner is periodically collapsed to create a massage and
relief on the teat exposed to vacuum. This is called pulsation and
occurs normally once every second.
Components of Milking Machine:
This can be seen as the “heart” of the milking machine, without it
we cannot milk. It creates vacuum by sucking air out of the system
(pipes, receiver, etc) to suck the milk out of the cow’s udder.
This “trap” protects the vacuum pump from moisture and dirt that
might be sucked up through the vacuum lines by accident.
This can be seen as the “brain” of the milking machine, and
controls the vacuum level in the system, by letting in extra air
when the vacuum level rises too high and closing when the vacuum
level drops too low. It can be very harmful to the cow if the vacuum
level rises too high, and the teats of the cow can be damaged.
This line transports the vacuum to the pulsators
This important device simulates the suckling of the cow, and
stimulates the cow to let down the milk to be sucked out by the
vacuum. It also massages the teats of the cow.
Because the milking machine works under vacuum, and we pump the
to a cooling tank, we have to use a receiver to collect all the milk
during the milking process, and then pump it to the cooling tank for
This line transports the vacuum to the cluster and then
transports milk from the cluster to the receiver.
The cluster consists of the rubber liners that fit
tightly around the teats to extract the milk and a
collection bowl where the milk is collected from the four teats.
The job of the cooling tank
is to cool down the milk as
fast as possible, preferable
to about 4°C within 3 hours
after milking. It is important
that we cool down the milk
to 4 °C as fast as possible to prevent bacteria growth.
If we do not cool it down quickly enough, it will become
Operation of Milking Machine/Milking Parlour:
Before starting milking make sure all
equipment and tools are at hand and in proper condition. Wash
your hands thoroughly before starting milking.
Start milking with young fresh calver and
healthy cow. Then milk old cows and finish milking with treated
Always handle animals with care and in a
calm and considerate way. No yelling or beating if you want them
to give you all their milk. Preferably shower the animal
Clean and massage the cow’s udder. Use dry
cleaning if the udder is clean. If it is so dirty clean it with
warm water and dry with udder towel. Never use same udder towel
for each cow.
Dip the teat in some recommended dip
solution and after dipping clean it with tissue paper. This will
eliminate infections to spread from the outside of the teat to
the inside of the same or other teats milked with the same unit.
Monitor the milking and adjust the unit if
it starts squeaking or if the cow appears uncomfortable.
Take off the unit when the milk flow has
ceased or is very low. Check that the udder is empty before you
remove the unit.
the teat in post dipping solution within one minute after
takeoff. This will safeguard disinfection and protection of the
teat canal while it still is open.
Register the observations you do on the
individual cows during milking. In many production systems
milking is the only time of the day when you are close to all
the individual lactating cows.
A persistent routine is very important for
this action as the cows will develop a let down reflex that is
adjusted to such a routine.
At large scale
dairy farms milking is done in milking parlours and milking lines.
Different types of milking parlours are discussed in Farm Building
section of this website.