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Ovulation & Fertilization

is the process whereby the follicle releases the ova into the uterine horn. The coordination of the ovulation process with estrus is critical for reproductive success. The control and coordination of these events is through the endocrine system. The hypothalamus produces GnRH, which stimulates the release of FSH (follicle stimulating hormone). FSH induces the growth of the dominant follicle until ovulation and also stimulates ovarian production of estrogen or estradiol, which causes the animal to show behavioural signs of heat and also prepares the uterus for conception. In addition, estradiol suppresses FSH secretion and stimulates LH secretion of the anterior pituitary. LH starts the ovulation process and stimulates luteinization of the follicle following ovulation. The corpus luteum (CL) is the luteinized tissue left after the follicle ruptures; it produces predominantly progesterone. Progesterone completes the uterine preparation for pregnancy and feeds back to anterior pituitary, inhibiting both FSH and LH and preventing ovulation during pregnancy. If an animal does not conceive, then the uterus produces prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) which causes luteial regression at about the sixteenth day of the oestrous cycle. If the animal stays pregnant, then eventually placental production of progesterone takes over from luteial production to maintain pregnancy. In cattle ovulation occurs 12-15 hours after the onset of estrus.

Fertilization is a physiological process in which the male and female gametes each having haploid (n) no. of chromosomes fuse to form zygote.

Site of Fertilization:
Site of fertilization is lower part of ampulla of fallopian tube. Bull ejaculate semen in vagina while in case of AI, the semen is ejected in the body of uterus, which rush for the fertilization in fallopian tube. After successful fertilization animal becomes pregnant.


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