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Selection of Animals

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Record Keeping

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Body Condition Scoring

Milk Quality




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Induction of Parturition


  • Managemental causes as you desire that animal should participate in competition. Consider the husbandry facilities, availability of labor, and man power. So we induce parturition to make the use of maximum facilities.  

  • Health conditions - Health of dam is deteriorating day by day so induce the parturition.  Induce parturition two weeks before normal due date; otherwise less survivability of fetus.

  • To avoid dystokia because during last two weeks growth of fetus is enhanced and daily weight gain of fetus is increased.

  • To avoid udder injuries or excessive udder edema as development of udder near the parturition is fast

  • Truncate the calving season (cut-short). There by allowing more time postpartum to resume cyclicity before the next breeding season.

Some Important Criteria for Successful Induction of Parturition

  • The method must be effective

  • Must have a predictable time (less variation)

  • Treatment should not have any adverse effect on dam and on health of calve

  • Method should not affect the quality nor the quantity of colostrum because immunoglobulins are transferred quickly from blood to milk in udder during last two weeks. Colostrum is only the source of immunity for the calf

  • Postpartum involution and subsequent fertility is not affected

  • It should not increase the incidence of retained placenta


  • Accurate and reliable breeding record should be known. Exact date of breeding should be known.

  • Must consider the facilities, manpower, husbandry and life span etc.


Hormonal Treatment:

  • Prostaglandins

  • Corticosteroids

  • Estrogens

  • Combination of these 

Use of Long Acting Corticosteroids:



Retained Placenta

Early Embryonic Mortality

Mummification of Fetus

Maceration of Fetus







Bovine Viral Diarrhea

Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis


Catarrhal  Vulvovaginitis

Genital Fibropapilloma

Mycotic Placentitis


Uterine Torsion

Uterine Prolapse

Vaginal Prolapse


Cystic Ovarian Degeneration

Disorders of Fertilization


Repeat Breeding

Induction of Parturition


These are given intramuscularly one month before the due date of parturition and parturition occurs between 4-26 days. Not good method; wider range of time is the disadvantage. Here the incidence of RFM is less. High incidence of calf mortality 45-70% due to premature placental separation and uterine inertia. Calf died in uterus and born autolysed. Calf lacks the immunoglobulins. Calf is week and cannot ingest adequate amount of colostrum.

Short Acting Corticosteroids:
Efficacy is 80-100%. Give intramuscularly two weeks before due date, parturition may occur within 24-72 hours with an average of 48 hours. Amount of IGs is normal in clostrum. It increases the incidence of retained placenta which is related to degree of prematurity. Incidence range is 30-100%.

Use of Prostaglandin:
Use of prostaglandin is similar to corticosteroids short acting. Its efficacy is similar to short acting corticosteroids. So no advantage over corticosteroids.

Use of Estrogen:
Use of estrogen is considered as old method (before the availability of PGF2α). Disadvantage is poor efficacy and high incidence of retention of fetal membrane.

Combination of Short Acting Corticosteroids + Estrogen:
It does not decrease the incidence of retained placenta. However larger doses of estrogen decrease the interval of parturition by several hours. Chances of failure are lower.

Long Acting + Short Acting/ PGF2α:
After administration of 7-12 days of long acting, the short acting PGF2α is given then at 2-3 days parturition occurs. Interval is short and predictable however incidence of calf mortality is high. Corticosteroids and PGF2α not decreases percentage of retained placenta but chances of failure are decreased.

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