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Vaginal Prolapse

Protrusion of all or part of vulva. It is common in polyparous animals

Predisposing Factors

  • Rising level of estrogen during last trimester of gestation. Because it causes relaxation of pelvic ligament and birth canal.

  • Vaginal injury during previous parturition

  • Diet rich in estrogen

  • Obesity with deposition of fat in perivaginal area

  • Extensive intake of low quality roughages

  • Sever cold weather

  • Poor confirmation including excessively large and flaccid vulva

  • Heredity  


It is classified on the basis of progression, severity, and prognosis.

  • First degree prolapse

  • Second degree prolapse

  • Third degree prolapse

  • Fourth degree prolapse

First Degree Prolapse:
Vaginal tissue protrudes from the vulva when animal is lying down. It usually occurs during the late gestation. This usually goes unnoticed. Vagina becomes irritated by the exposure to sun, wind, dust, fecal contamination and cold weather. If there is no parturition, the continued vaginal irritation leads to the next stage.

Second Degree Prolapse:
With second degree prolapse vagina is continually prolapsed. Cervix is unexposed and retained a good cervical seal. If neglected, the bladder may be reverted with prolapse and interfere with urination.

Third Degree Prolapse:
Cervix and entire vagina are prolapsed. This is due to the lack of support of perivaginal tissue. This condition is common in cows with chronic cervical enlargement.

Fourth Degree Prolapse:
The prolapse is of prolong duration and there is deep necrosis and adhesions between perivaginal tissue and adjacent organs.

Replacement of Prolapse

  • Give epidural anesthesia

  • Clean the vagina

  • Wash with warm normal saline

  • Suture if any injury or laceration

  • Catheterization of bladder if filled

  • Apply non irritant antiseptic cream

  • Replace the vagina

  • Suture



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