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These terms are used as abortion, premature birth, still birth. Abortion is expulsion of live or dead fetus, usually dead. If live, it is unable to maintain its independent life.

Premature birth is expulsion of dead or live fetus usually live and able to maintain independent life.

In still birth animal is normal. Signs of parturition are normal but at the time of parturition the fetus is delivered as dead. The major cause of it is acidosis of fetus due to disturbance in metabolism of fetus and gaseous exchange of fetus with mother.

Abortion usually occurs from 42-260 days particularly in cattle, normally 260 days. Before 42 days it is early embryonic death. Premature birth is 15-20 days prior to the completion of gestation period.

Economical Losses Due to Abortion

  • Fetal costs

  • Lactation performance is affected by abortion due to hormonal disturbance.

  • It affects the reproductive efficiency of animal. As after abortion there are chances of infection. It will delay the process of involution, the time to go back to estrus will increase and it will decrease the conception rate. So calving interval will be affected.

  • Treatment cost is also a factor.

Types of Abortion

Spontaneous Abortion/Miscarriage:
If the process of abortion is due to exogenous factor or by giving hormone called induction of abortion.

If abortion occurs without any hormone or any known factor, that comes under spontaneous abortion.

Therapeutic Abortion:
Where there is danger to life of mother. Problem is with placenta. It may cause toxemia to mother. So to save the life of mother we give hormone to induce parturition.

Elective Abortion:
If you cause abortion not to save the mother life but due to some other reason, it will be elective abortion e.g. mismating.

Threatened Abortion:
If process of abortion starts and it is not possible to stop it; that abortion becomes threat to mother. In this case abortion done is threatened abortion.

Therapeutic and elective abortions are induced abortion.


Causes of Abortion

Generally divided into infectious and non infectious causes.

Infectious Cases

Bacterial causes:
Brucellosis, Vibriosis, Leptospirosis, Listeriosis, Tuberculosis, Salmonellosis; these are major causes.

Streptococcus, Compylobacterium, E. coli, Staphylococcus; these are minor causes.

Viral causes:
Blue tongue, IBR, Mucosal disease, FMD, Herpes virus

Fungal Causes:
Aspergillus species

Non Infectious Causes

If abortion does not occur, one will be healthier and other will be weaker.

Nutritional Deficiency:
Vitamin A, E, C, B, iodine, macro and micro mineral deficiency. If there is deficiency of vitamin A, technically it will call hypovitamenosis A. 

Any type of stress as transportation. So give multivitamin before transport. In stress corticosteroids are major cause of abortion.


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