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Due to infectious or non infectious, non specific and specific causes.

Infectious Causes:
Whenever there is infection, it alters the environment of uterus that will impair the transport of sperm, death of sperm or ovum; even if fertilization occurs then there could be embryonic death as environment is hostile for the development of embryo. Even the struggle is continued but abortion may occur.

Specific infection:
The infection which particularly affects reproductive tract so those infections whose predilection site is reproductive tract e.g. brucellosis, trichomoniasis. 

Non specific infection: Staphylococcus, streptococcus, E.coli, pseudomonas. These are opportunist pathogens. Specific infection does not require predisposing factors where as non specific requires it. Specific infections are enzootic in nature, when come in herd affect all non specific and are sporadic in nature

For the development of non specific infection two barriers which prevent its development

  • Physical barrier

  • Defensive mechanism

Physical barrier:

  • Cervix

  • Vulvular sphincter

Barriers are predisposed at different occasions as:

  • Estrous or insemination

  • Parturition

At both these occasions reproductive tract is in its most resistant form. When uterus is under the influence of estrogen then it is most resistant to infection and at the time of parturition there is increased level of estrogen. So uterus is resistant to infection but when progesterone is dominant, uterus is prone to infection.

How the development of infection is prevented by estrogen:

  • There is increased blood supply to uterus so more white blood cells

  • Maximum production of secretions mucous which is flushing effect and dilute the pathogens

  • Contractions are going on so pushing the contents of uterus outside



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