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Selection of Animals

Farm Building


Record Keeping

Sanitation & Hygiene





Body Condition Scoring

Milk Quality




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Sanitation & Hygiene of Dairy Farm

The easy and quick method of cleaning animal house is with liberal use of tap water, proper lifting and disposal of all dung and used straw bedding, and providing drainage for complete removal of liquid waste and urine. The daily removal of feed and fodder left over in the manger reduces the fly nuisance. Following points should be kept in mind regarding sanitation and hygiene of animal house:

  • There should be a wheel dip filled with some good disinfectant at the main gate of farm so that vehicle while entering the farm may pass through the dip and cause the tires to be disinfected. Another option is spraying the lower side of vehicle with disinfectant.

Dairy farm biosecurity - wheel dip

  • Also arrange Feet Dip and Hand Wash with disinfectant at main gate

dairy farm biosecurity foot dip

  • Spread Calcium carbonate at the entrance of shed area to disinfect the shoes of staff.

  • Entry of workers of other farms should be avoided.  

  • Dry dusting/sweeping is not recommended; dust will stay hanging in air and later on settle down. So moisten the area then sweep.

  • Remove dung and used bedding completely. Construct manure pit for proper handling of manure.

  • Avoid spilling of dung and used bedding while carrying it out.

  • Avoid the use of dirty water in cleaning the sheds.

  • Never put the fresh fodder over the previous day’s left over fodder in the manger/feeding table.

  • Prevent algae to grow in the water troughs.

  • Use proper concentration of disinfectant/insecticide solutions to avoid any toxic poisoning.

  • All mechanical instruments as feeding hoppers, drinkers, milking machines, ventilation, fans, heating and lighting equipments, and fire extinguishers should be in working conditions and inspected regularly.

  • Electric appliances should not be approached by the animals.

  • If any abnormality in udder or teat then must identify and treat the situation.

  • Construct hoof dip filled with CuSO4 on the way from dairy shed to milking shed for the hoof care.

  Quarantine Measures 

We must have to observe quarantine to observe hygiene:

  • Keep sick animals separate for at least three weeks and then mixed into shed

  • Do not exchange breeding stocks with other farms

  • Avoid stray dogs as they play important role in  disease spreading

  • Keep the environment healthy by using disinfectants and antiseptics

  Ticks Control Program 

Ticks are economically important in cattle and livestock species. These are vectors for parasites like babeisia, theileria, anaplasma,  virus like in case of  Crimean Congo  Fever; bacteria like pasterurella, brucella, listeria, staphylococcus. Ticks are also blood suckers. Ticks belonging to genus Ixodes and Ornithodorus are associated with tick paralysis because of toxin is released from ticks. Important species of ticks are Boophilus, Hyaoloma, Rhipicephalous, Amblyomma. Ticks show a variety of host contact pattern during their life cycle. One host tick: Boophilus, each developmental stage feeds upon same host. Three host species: Hyalomma, complete different larval stages on different hosts.

Control Strategies:

  • Housing of animals in tick proof buildings. Cracks and crevices are big source of ticks. For this purpose caulking of wall and roof should be done.

  • Herbage and wastage of farm (dung) should be burned slowly as ticks are killed by smoke.

  • Manual removal of ticks. But do not twist it in hand because it causes Crimean Cango Hemorrhagic Fever in humans. Always remove ticks with forceps in anti-clock wise direction.

  • Clearance of vegetation.

  • Use of Acaricides, in the form of dip, injection, pour on, ear tags etc.

  • Tick vaccines are available but not in Pakistan.

  • Development of resistant tick breeds. Sahiwal cattle is resistant to ticks due to some factors like its skin moves, hairs are short, and straight and secretion from skin (sebaceous).

  • Biological Control: Predators including birds, rodents, screws, ants and spiders may play a role in tick control in some areas.

  • Ethnoveterinary Practices - Salt is applied on body of animal. Taramira oil mixed in simple oil can be applied on body. 250 mg of terpentine is soaked in water and next morning mixed with ice or cold water and 100 g salt is added and applied to animals.

  • Dipping is an expensive operation but is desirable for tick eradication program. The construction of a dipping tank varies according to the kind and number of animals required to be dipped. In tropical and subtropical countries it is preferable to cover the tank with a roof, as it will avoid excessive concentration of the insecticides by evaporation or dilution by rain. The following precautions should be observed while dipping animals for tick control and treatment:

▪  Wounds must be attended to thoroughly before resorting to dipping otherwise dipping makes the
     animal feel more discomfort and toxicity may occur

▪  Avoid dipping on a cloudy, rainy, windy or cold day

▪  The animals to be dipped should not be thirsty

▪  Animals that are fatigued due to any reason should not be dipped

▪  Avoid contamination of the dipping tank with organic matter as it lowers the concentration of
    insecticides in the dip

▪  The animals must actually swim in the tank and have one or two dips of their heads in the bath. For 
     this purpose, two attendants with forked blunt sticks should direct the operation

▪  Let the animals drain properly before they are sent out to the fields otherwise the insecticide will
    cause pollution of feed, fodder or other things coming in contact with insecticides. Design the dipping
    area with a good drain back to the dipping tank.

▪  The concentration of dip solution should be very carefully adjusted according to manufacturer’s

▪  Weak animals less than three months old, lactating animals or animals in advanced pregnancy should
     not be subjected to this operation

▪  While handling any acaricide, avoid repeated or prolonged contacts with skin and inhalation of dust
    and mist. Wear clean clothing and wash hands and face before eating or smoking after dipping
    operation. Keep the antidote ready for use in the case of any acaricide poisoning

▪  Recommended drug withdrawal period should be observed

▪  The dimension of the dipping tank should be decided according the numbers and type of dairy animals
     on farm. The following dimensions for the cattle farms are advisable:

◊  Maximum depth – 3.5 meters, it includes 0.6-0.8 metre for splash walls

◊  Length – 16 meters, let at least middle half of it remain filled with 2.5 to 2.8 metres
    deep insecticide, with entrance and exit having convenient slopes.

◊  Width – 3.2 metres throughout the entire length

▪  Dipping tank should have a cemented, impervious, non-slippery internal lining. The entrance and exit
    should have convenient slopes. It should be filled in such a way that the animals are in a position to
    swim 4 to 5 metres on their way. 


Diagnosis of Mastitis in Pakistan - Keno test


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