Pak Dairy Info
Pakistan's 1st Online Dairy Farming Guide

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Contents

Introduction

Breeds

Selection of Animals

Farm Building

Management

Record Keeping

Sanitation & Hygiene

Nutrition

Reproduction

Breeding

Health

Body Condition Scoring

Milk Quality

Feasibility

Terminologies

Directory

Picture Gallery

Introduction

Being major player in national economy livestock sector has been selected as an economy engine for poverty alleviation from Pakistan. According to economic survey of Pakistan 2012-13, its contribution to agriculture value added is approximately 55.4 % and to national GDP is 11.9 %. Livestock is raised by more than 8.5 million small and landless families in the rural areas and 35-40 million rural populations are dependent on this.

In Pakistan livestock includes cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, camels, horses, asses and mules. Milk, meat, wool, hair, bones, fat, blood eggs, hides and skins are the main livestock products among which milk and meat are taken as major products. Besides this, these animals are used for draught purposes.  

As per IFCN Dairy Map/Reort 2012, Pakistan is 3rd largest milk producing country in the world. Milk is produced by buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat and camel but being major contributor in milk production, cattle and buffalo are considered as major dairy animals and are always mainly focused and discussed. These dairy animals are also used as draught and beef animals. When a dairy animal has spent her productive life and becomes uneconomical for milk production then she is used as a beef animal. Male calves of dairy animals and dairy bulls when no further required for breeding purposes are also utilized for beef purposes.

Buffalos found in Pakistan make up 47% of Pakistan's major dairy animal's population providing more than about 61% of the total milk produced in the country. Buffalo breeds found in Pakistan are Nili Ravi, Kundi and Aza Kheli. Nili Ravi is considered best buffalo breed in world and known as Black Gold of Pakistan. Cattle constitute about 53% of the national population of major dairy animals in Pakistan and contribute the share of almost 35% to the total milk production in country. The cattle breeds found in the country are Sahiwal, Cholistani, Red Sndhi, Achai, Bhagnari, Dajal, Dhanni, Gibrali, Kankraj, Lohani, Rojhan, and Thari. Out of these, Sahiwal, Cholistani, and Red Sindhi are main dairy breeds and well known internationally due to their distinct characteristics. Other than well-defined cattle breeds, there are a large number of nondescript cattle breeds and crossbred cattle.

Goat is considered as `poor man's cow'. Some rural and urban people keep goats and sheep and use their milk for domestic consumption. The same is true about certain nomads who raise camels and use their milk to meet family needs. Some camelmen when in periurban situation, sell milk in urban areas. Certain breeds of camels in Pakistan, have the potential to be called as dairy animals, but being slow breeders they remained ignored since long.

More than 96% of the milk produced in Pakistan comes from cattle and buffalo. The rest of it is collectively produced by sheep, goat and camel which, most of the time, is not sold as such, rather mixed with buffalo and cow milk. Estimated national livestock Population and milk production of 2012-13 based on National Livestock Census 2006 is given below:

Species

Population (Million)

Milk Production (Million Tons)

Cattle

                     38.3

                17.372

Buffalo

                     33.7

                30.462

Sheep

                     28.8

                  0.037

Goat

                     64.9

                  0.801

Camel

                       1.0

                  0.840

Total

                  166.7

               49.512

Current Estimated Province Wise Livestock Population is given below:                                    

                                                                                                                               (Millions)

Province

Cattle

Buffalo

Sheep

Goat

Camel

Punjab

19.0

21.9

6.9

24.0

0.22

Sindh

8.8

9.1

4.3

14.9

0.30

KPK

7.7

2.4

3.7

11.7

0.07

Balochistan

3.1

0.3

13.8

14.2

0.41

Milk is favourite food in Pakistan and is consumed as fresh, boiled, powdered and in processed form as yogurt, ghee, lassi, butter, cheese, ice cream, sweets and in other confectioneries. The interesting thing regarding the dairy sector of Pakistan is that although we are fourth largest milk producing country in the world but still this production falls short to meet national demand. As a result milk is to be imported to fulfill this demand. Human milk consumption in Pakistan for year 2012-13 is given below:

Species

Human Milk Consumption (Million Tons)

Cattle

                               13.897

Buffalo

                               24.370

Sheep

                                 0.037

Goat

                                 0.801

Camel

                                 0.840

Total

                              39.945

Let's have a look on different production systems of Pakistan. Till late eighties, more than 60% of buffaloes and some cows were maintained under the system of Rural Subsistence Production System. In this system on an average there were 3 to 4 dairy animals with one or two adult females. Almost 50 to 60% of the feed requirements of these animals were fulfilled from grazing along with wheat straw and some green fodder. ¼th of milk produced was sold out and remaining was utilized for domestic use. This system still exists in some areas of Pakistan.

With the time being Rural Subsistence Production System changed into Rural Market-Oriented Smallholder Production System. Under this system, on an average there were 5 to 7 animals per herd, inclusive of cow; 3 to 4 adult lactating animals, one or two heifers, and one or two male calves, but most often no bull. Feeding requirement of lactating animals were fulfilled from fodder along with wheat straw and seed cake. More than 70% of milk produced was sold either directly or through middlemen. This system was practiced by those smallholders who have access to nearby livestock markets. 

In 1980s, dairy sector in Pakistan moved towards commercial side and development of rural commercial dairy farms started. A typical rural dairy farm running on commercial basis consisted of about 30 animals of which 70% were females, including some cows. Approximately 40% of these adult females were in milk during most of the year. Fodder crops provided 50% and straws about 35% of the feed requirements and concentrates made the rest of it. More than 90% of the milk produced at the farm was sold. 

With growing demand for milk in urban areas rural commercial dairy farming moved toward peri-urban areas. In peri-urban areas there are large and small dairy herds consisting of 20-50 animals with nearly 90% of adult females in production. Male calves are disposed off within first two weeks of birth. These animals are fed chopped green fodder and wheat straw and concentrate mixture with target to sell almost total milk produced.   

Due to enhanced rate of urbanization over the last 2 to 3 decades, large peri-urban commercial dairy farming is going towards urban commercial farming. Targets of these farms are to get maximum milk production with economical and quality feeding and good management. Animals on these farms are fed good quality green fodder or silage along with concentrate mixture. Dairy animals maintained at these farms are considered elite animals, hence their yields per lactation are considerably higher than those of animals maintained under other production systems. Milk produced on these farms is either sold out in processed/fresh form through outlets or departmental stores or supplied to dairy companies.

During last ten years major changes has been occurred in dairy sector of Pakistan and due to these change this sector is on the way to become an industry. A large number of modern dairy farms have been established in different areas. Most of these dairy farms have exotic animals and number of these animals is in hundreds and even in thousands. Dairy farms with more than 3000 animals also exist and with 5000 animals are in plan. Such farms have adopted most modern managemental and feeding practices and well trained man power. Milk produced on these farms is either sold out in processed/fresh form through outlets or departmental stores etc. or supplied to dairy companies.

 

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