Pak Dairy Info
Pakistan's 1st Online Dairy Farming Guide

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Breeding Systems

One of the following general systems of breeding is possible for use in dairy animals:

  • Inbreeding

  • Line breeding

  • Crossbreeding

Inbreeding involves the mating of animals that are closely related. Inbreeding is usually avoided by dairy breeders since it presents a high risk for exposure to undesirable or even lethal recessive traits.

Line Breeding:
Line breeding is breeding of genetically related parents i.e. of same breed. It is practiced extensively by dairy breeders and it is a comparatively safer breeding program.

Cross Breeding:
The mating of unrelated animals i.e. of different breeds is called crossbreeding. It is the most widely used system of breeding by dairy producers. It helps introduce new genes into the herd simply because a wide choice of animals is available. It often results in producing animals that are highly desirable.


Crossbreeding cannot be practiced in registered animals/herds (animals of a certain breed are registered with the same breed registry; we in Pakistan, badly lack this system, which is one of the requirements for producing improved animals with high genetic potential) because the offspring cannot be registered.

The objectives of this system of breeding are to use the best sires available regardless of breed and to gain hybrid vigour in the offspring (reduced calfhood mortality), increased efficiency of gain and reproduction and possibly more economical milk production. Crossbred animals produce more than the average of the two breeds used in the cross, but production will not reach the amount expected from the higher-producing parent.


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