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It is a blood born disease due to protozoa. This disease is transmitted through ticks which act as mechanical vectors. Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat are susceptible. There is marked anemia. Anaplasma is causative organism. This disease is present throughout the world in all tropical, subtropical, and other climatic regions. Crossbreds and foreign breeds like Fresian are more prone to this disease but local animals are resistant.

60 % of transmission occurs through tick and others through lice, Culicoid mosquitos and mites. Transmission is also through contamination of instruments, syringes and blood transfusion.


Clinical Findings:

  •  High rise in body temperature 104-108 oF or 42 oC.

  • When RBCs destroyed, there is release of RBCs in urine.

  • Anemia, pale mucous membrane

  • Abortion in pregnant animals

  • Decrease in milk production

  • Edematous swelling of limbs

  • Mortality may be upto 10-30 %

  • Recovered animal becomes carrier for the rest of life

Clinical findings and microscopic examination of blood smear with Giemsa stain, ELISA, PCR, and DNA probing.

Imidocarb diproprionate is drug of choice. Its dose rate is 2.5 ml for 100 Kg. Oxytetracyclin 20 mg/Kg, deep intramuscular for 5 days. Carrier animals should be given oxytetracycline for 3-4 days. Parenteral administration of prednisolon, vitaminin B complex and aminoacids mineral mixture. Blood transfusion to animals showing severe anemia.


  • Control ticks and other arthropods

  • Use disposable needles and sterilized instruments during farm operations like vaccination, castration, dehorning, and tail docking etc.

  • Elimination of carrier state by administration of long acting oxytetracycline @ 20 mg per kg every three days for four successive treatments.


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