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Rabies

Rabies is a specific viral fatal encephalomyelitis affecting all warm‑blooded animals (but principally carnivores) and characterized by the derangement of the nervous system causing interference with the consciousness, nervous irritability and paralysis. All warm-blooded animals with the possible exception of opossums are susceptible to rabies. However, of all animals, dog is the principal species affected. Dogs, foxes, wolves, raccoons, mongooses, coyotes, skunks and vampire bats all can serve as reservoirs of rabies virus. Rabies virus is a bullet shaped single-stranded RNA virus, having negative sense and nonsegmented genome.


 

Transmission:
The natural and the most common method of transmission is through bite of an infected animal. Transmission can also occur through contamination of skin wounds by fresh saliva of an infected animal. The saliva of an affected animal has been shown to be virulent several days (as long as fourteen days) before the appearance of symptoms. Air-borne transmission and transmission through ingestion, transplacental transmission as well as via drinking water has been suspected.

Clinical Signs:

  • The clinical signs of rabies are variable

  • Cattle and buffaloes generally have the furious form of rabies

  • The most striking signs are fits of bellowing, general straining and tenesmus, but they rarely bite.

  • Many cattle will strain more or less constantly as if to defecate. Usually air is aspirated into the rectum when there is relaxation between the straining periods.

  • Animals with furious form of rabies may show anger toward objects in their environment or may run madly through fences and doors. Such behavior may be produced by mild touch or sound.

  • Salivation is seen in many but not in all cases

  • As the disease enters the paralytic stage, the first sign is the weakness in the hind legs followed by paralysis that takes over the muscles of locomotion

  • A frequent sign is knuckling over the hind fetlocks

  • Death usually occurs after a period of paralysis and prostration

Pre exposure Immunization:
One ml dose of Rabisin should be given according to given schedule.

 

Minimum age

Booster

Born of non-

vaccinated dam

Born of

vaccinated

dam

4 months

9 months

Annually or triennially depending

upon the level of risk of exposure


 

 

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