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Introduction

Breeds

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Roughages

Roughages are plant material in a fresh dried or ensiled state which are bulky and fibrous in nature and normally contain higher percentage of crude fibre (18%) and low percentage of TDN (less than 60%). There are two types of roughages including green roughages and dry roughages.

Green Roughages:


 

Fodders, forages, range grasses, sugar cane tops, and tree leaves are the examples of green roughages. Green roughages are high in moisture content, easily digestible and are commonly used for the feeding of dairy animals. Pasture species which are naturally growing are called forages while those which are cultivated are called fodder. There are two types of fodders depending upon the amount of protein present. These include leguminous fodder and non leguminous fodder. Leguminous fodders are higher in nitrogen/protein content because they have the ability to utilize the environmental nitrogen with the help of nitrogen fixing bacteria present in their roots.  On the other hand non leguminous fodder have no such ability so they are low in nitrogen content. Important legume fodders are barseem, lucern, shaftal, soyabean and cowpea. Non leguminous fodders include many cereal fodder crops such as maize, sorghum, millet and oats.

On the basis of growing season green fodders in Pakistan are classified as Rabbi fodders and kharif fodders. Rabbi fodders are grown in November and December and include barseem, oats, barley, mustard/rape seed, lucern and sugar cane etc. Kharif fodders are grown in May-June and include sorghum, millet, mott grass, sadabhar, guar, jantar, sugar beet tops.
 

maize - makai  barley   barseem
Maize                                               Barely                                            Barseem
 

guar  lucern, alfalfa  mott grass
                  Guar                                                  Lucerne                                      Mott Grass
 

millet - bajra  mustard - sarsu  oat - jai
Millet                                      Mustard                                       Oat
 

sorghum - jawar  SSG - Sorghum Sudan Grass - Sadabahar
Sorghum                                 SSG
 

Dry Roughages:
Dry roughages include hays, straws, stovers and hulls. Hay is prepared by drying the fodder and then preserving it. In Pakistan farmers mostly prepare hay from lucern, sorgnhum, millet, oats and grasses. Hay is used during the scarcity period of fodder.

When the grain portions of the crops are removed, remaining dried plant material are straws and stovers. They consist mostly of stems and leaves. These may also be termed as crop residues. These are low in protein, high in fibre, less digestible, low in minerals and cannot be consumed in large quantities by the animals. Therefore they are classified as poor quality or low quality roughages. The commonly available straws and stovers in different areas of Pakistan are wheat straw, rice straw, barley straw, chickpea straw, moth and moung straw, and soyabean straw, maize stovers and sorghum stovers.

Hulls are the outer hard coverings of grains which are obtained as by product during seed processing. Cottonseed hulls are commonly used for livestock feeding in some parts of country. Seeds broken in processing are mixed in with the hulls to increase their nutritive value. Rice hulls are also abundantly available but they are of extremely poor quality.
 

  

 

  Nutritive Values of Roughages 

 

Name of Roughage

DM (%)

CP (%)

EE (%)

CF (%)

Ash (%)

NFE (%)

Green Roughages

Maize

23.7

9.8

1.8

27.1

9.8

       51.6

Sorghum

33.4

6.8

1.5

31.8

6.8

53.1

Millet

25.0

4.4

1.5

32.6

11.5

50.1

Barley

19.8

13.3

3.6

21.9

13.5

47.7

Berseem (1st cut)

15.2

18.9

1.8

15.8

14.7

 42.3

Berseem (2nd cut)

13.2

19.1

2.2

17.9

15.6

45.2

Berseem (3rd cut)           

15.5

19.6

1.9

20.8

15.2

42.5

Berseem (4th cut)

18.4

15.3

1.5

26.8

15.7

40.7

Berseem (5th  cut)

19.3

15.2

1.8

26.7

15.5

40.8

Berseem (6th cut)

20.0

15.4

2.2

28.4

15.2

38.8

Oat

17.2

13.5

2.9

23.0

13.3

47.3

Lucerne

18.2

22.5

1.7

24.0

12.4

39.4

Sugarcane

27.2

6.2

2.7

31.2

7.5

52.4

Guar

21.7

19.2

1.3

14.0

12.8

52.7

Bajra-Napier grass

23.7

15.3

2.2

28.3

15.2

39.0

Hybrid Napier grass

28.8

16.3

1.2

26.1

13.9

42.5

Range grass

35.7

5.1

3.0

36.7

8.1

47.1

Moth

24.5

I 1

1.5

31.3

12.6

43.6

Mung

23.1

14.5

1.1

32.2

10.8

41.4

Dry Roughages

Wheat straw

90.5

3.0

0.1

41.8

10.9

44.2

Rice straw

90.5

4.1

0.2

31.9

15.4

48.4

Maize stovers

95.2

5.5

0.4

38.0

10.0

46.1

Sorghum stovers

94.5

3.5

0.9

40.5

7.5

47.6

Range grass hay

91.1

3.1

1.5

40.6

6.8

48.0

Mung straw

95.5

8.4

2.3

37.8

14.9

36.6

Chickpea straw

95.2

5.5

0.6

44.2

10.3

39.4

Sugarcane

92.3

2.1

0.9

47.8

3.6

45.6

 

 

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