Edematous swelling (starts in throat region and then spread to
parotid region and to the neck)
Mucous membranes are congested
Difficult respiration and animal dies within few hours
Field or clinical diagnosis is usually based on history, clinical
signs, pathological lesions observed on postmortem, previous
occurrence of HS in the herd, endemicity of the area, species
affected, and vaccination history.
lab diagnosis best tissues for smear and cultures are blood (from
heart), liver, lungs and spleen. Staining can be done with Giemsa
stain and methylene blue stain. Pasteurella grows on common
laboratory media like blood agar. Haemagglutination test, detecting
somatic Ag, or mouse protection tests, detecting capsular antigen,
are more reliable.
It is caused by G -ve bacteria. So antibiotics affected for G –ve
should be administered. Bactericidal antibiotics should not be
administered. In acute HS endotoxins is the main cause of
pathological changes so non steroidal anti-inflammatory (dichlophanic
Na) and steroids are given which have beneficial effects for
stoppage of endotoxins.
Vaccination is available in Pakistan prepared by NIAB and VRI.