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Uterine Torsion

Twisting of uterus on its longitudinal axis. It occurs mainly in bovine.

Causes of Uterine Torsion

Anatomical Arrangement:
Uterus is unstable. Uterus attached by its lesser curvature by round ligament. After pregnancy it moves in abdominal cavity, free from greater curvature. This makes it unstable. Any jerk any violent movement lead to twist.

Sitting and Rising Behavior:
Forelimbs go on ground first and rise from hind quarter posture is inclined while this uterus if free, any jerk leads to twist.

Transportation:

  • In last trimester on bumpy roads

  • Movement of animal on sloppy area

  • Rolling habit of buffalo

  • Incidence more in stall fed animals as compared to grazing animals. Muscle tone is lost in standing animals i.e. atony of uterine muscles

  • Deficiency of certain mineral

  • Hyperactive fetus

When Torsion Occurs

It can occur at any time. Those before 6 month are not reported. It can occur at the 60 day of pregnancy. Most of the time reported at the time of parturition. Torsion occurs at late part of first stage of labour or in early parturition of 2nd stage of labour. We draw this result that if torsion relieved, cervix will be relaxed.

Degree of torsion

Torsion could be of any degree depending upon the twist 90o, 180o, 360o, 270o.

Types of Torsion

Partial:
Twist below 180o usually 90o, fetal parts and water bag may appear.

Complete:
Torsion 180o or above 180 o is considered complete. Delivery is not possible until torsion is treated.

Sides
Left sided: anti clockwise

Right sided: clockwise more common as rumen is on left side.


 

Diagnosis of Torsion

Diagnosis done by:

  • History

  • Specific examination (Vaginal palpation and rectal palpation)

  • In right sided torsion left ligament pulled across and right pushed under

  • Diagnose the degree by rectal palpation. On vaginal palpation spiral twist in vagina along the side of torsion

Treatment

  • Rapid rolling

  •  plank method

Both not used in partial torsion. Only rotate the fetus in partial torsion

Sacheffer’s or Plank Method:
12-14 feet long, 3-4 inch thickness, 10-12 inch wide plank. Man power is also required. Hold the head, fasten the limbs of animals separately. Place plank on flank region just after last rib. Water bag may appear after correction, if nothing comes then again examine.

Prerequisites:

  • Soft area, no nails or sharp edges, soft ropes, no peg on ground, protect udder and head

  • Degree and duration of torsion affect viability of fetus. Mostly dead fetus. Prognosis is poor in delayed cases and breeding ability affected.

  • Cervix may not open after removal of torsion so open the cervix or then go for cesarean section.

 

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