is shriveling or shrinkage of fetus by absorbing all fluid of fetus
and uterus. It causes the death of fetus, autolytic
changes in fetus, absorption of placental and fetal fluids,
involution of maternal caruncles and fetus assumes the shape of
There are two conditions either corpus luteum is maintained or other viable
fetus is found along with mummified fetus. Concept of viable fetus
is not in cattle and buffalo but in swine, sheep, goat, dogs and
cats it happens. Either corpus luteum or viable fetus has to be present
for mummified fetus. There are two types of mummification:
This type is present only in cattle. When maternal caruncles
involute, there will be bleeding and blood accumulates in between
membranes. Chocolate color or reddish brown color will be given to
fetus or fetal membrane. Sometimes chocolate type material is
occurs in all species and also in cattle. There is no bleeding.
Fetus and fetus membrane are normal.
incidence of mummification is low in cattle i.e. 0.13-0.18 %. This
mummification can occur in 3-8 month of gestation (mostly in 4th,
5th or 6th month). If not diagnosed, mummy
will stay for long time.
Since diagnosis of this condition is made very late; so
autolytic changes in fetus make it difficult to know the cause.
Some causes are:
Genetic or chromosomal abnormalities
Inherited endocrine defect
Tortion of umbilical cord. After 5 months fetus assumes its
final position and posture which is maintained upto delivery.
Before this, it keeps on moving. These movements lead to toriton
of umbilical cord. Placental injury may lead to hypoxia; hence
the fetus makes more movements, so cord is compressed.
In case of progesterone deficiency, give calculated dose of
progesterone. If high dose is given, delivery will not occur
after a month and gestation period prolongs. In this way fetus
may get mummified.
All those organisms which may cause inflammation of endometruim,
my cause mummification.
Due to impartial regression of corpus luteum fetus mummified and not
Signs of Mummification:
Uterine wall is strongly contracted around the fetus
The cervical seal is intact
There are no cotyledons palpatable