Pak Dairy Info
Pakistan's 1st Online Dairy Farming Guide

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Introduction

Breeds

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Brucellosis

It has zoonotic importance. Brucella abortis (in bovine and babeline), Brucella malletanis can also cause abortion in bovine and babeline.

Sources of Brucellosis

  • Skin lesion

  • Aborted fetus

  • Direct contact with organism

  • Contaminated food

  • Raw milk

  • Dogs/cats

  • Birds

  • Ocular route

Diagnosis

Isolation:
For this purpose freshly aborted fetus is best one with placenta. If placenta is not shed yet, then fetus sample. Preferably fresh fetus should be sent. Whole fetus is kept in plastic bag and sent to lab as early as possible preferably within 24 hours. It depends upon the season also. Suppose extreme summer season, it is better to add bag with ice cubes. If there is need to preserve, go for refrigeration.

Serological Test:
MRT (milk ring test), RBPT (rose bangal plate test), ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent essay), SAT (serum agglutination test). First two are for screening, ELISA and CFT are for confirmation. Suppose 10% aborted; first go for confirmation, remaining for screening.

There are some non infectious causes. Additionally sampling of fetus and placenta, also send the sample of food and water. 5g of fodder cover in plastic bag and send to lab for examination of mycotoxin, aflatoxin and even for the nutritive value.

In males Brucella is isolated from primary and accessory sex glands. Semen sample could be used for this purpose. Treatment of bull is required. In male there will be undulant fever and orchitis. If there is orchitis, it will affect the spermeogram.

Control and Eradication

  • Problem come when outbreak.

  • First separate aborted animal from the normal.

  • Then go for treatment.

  • Then you have to care for vaginal discharge.

  • Then secure the boundaries of the farm.

  • Then observe strictly the hygienic measurement at entry.

  • There should be proper disposal of aborted material.


 
  • Keep away cat, stray dogs, birds.

  • The herdman should not move from farm to farm.

  • In control, person should be educated about the plan.

  • Enter new animals after screening.

Treatment:
Use the speculum test for cervix opening. If it is opened then you will facilitate abortion. Give prostaglandins or estrogen for early parturition. In other where the opening is intact, go for treatment. Broad spectrum antibiotic, multivitamin are given to avoid abortion. Best treatment is penicillin and streptomycin. These are drug of choice.

 

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