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Contents

Introduction

Breeds

Selection of Animals

Farm Building

Management

Record Keeping

Sanitation & Hygiene

Nutrition

Reproduction

Breeding

Health

Body Condition Scoring

Milk Quality

Feasibility

Terminologies

Directory

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Repeat Breeding

If an animal does not conceive for three inseminations then it is called as repeat breeder. This repetition of estrous cycle and repeat breeding has various factors

From Female Side

If we take female side there are so many problems which make it to repeat. Some are anatomical defects which make the animal not to conceive e.g. segmental aplasia of reproductive tract.

Anatomical Problems:

  • White heifer disease: some part or reproductive tract is missing

  • Sometimes there is blockage of fallopian tube

  • Persistence of hymen (at junction of vagina in shape of sheath). Either it is in form of band or sheath and normally breaks when puberty comes. It can be problem but not of repeat breeding but of dystocia.

  • Sometimes there is double cervix. In this case chances of conception in case of natural mating but not in case of AI

  • Missing of uterinal gland: The glands produce mucous and uterine milk which is source of energy for embryo but if these glands are missing then pregnancy will not occur.

  • Complete absence of one horn

  • Ovarobursal growth which is occluding the fallopian lumen

  • Cystic growth in mesosalpinx, compress the fallopian tube and animal will repeat.

Infectious Causes of Repeat Breeding:

  • Some specific and non specific causes e.g. vibriosis, trypanosomiasis, streptococcus, pseudomonas, fungal infections.

  • Mostly these infections are checked by freezing of semen. It contains pus in it and diagnosis of these diseases become easy. These infections mostly result in endometritis if not treated then metritis and pyometra. Vibriosis and trypanosomiasis result in early embryonic mortality.

  • In endometritis uterine wall becomes thick and if animal in heat there is increased tonicity and mucous is more watery, it is not stingy.

Delayed Ovulation:
If there is delayed ovulation. The normal ovulation time 10-15 hours after the end of estrous. But some animals ovulate late and you have inseminated it after estrous then sperms will die and do not fertilize LH is not secreted in delayed ovulation.

Anovulated Follicles:
Animal come in heat but no ovulation occurred and the estrus will be irregular


 

Cystic Ovarian Degeneration:
It may be follicular cyst or luteal cyst. Granulose cells change into luteal cells, there is production of progesterone and animal will not come into heat. 

Polycystic Ovaries:         
Many follicles which changed in cyst.

Hormonal Problems:

  • Hormone deficiency

  • Receptors are missing for hormone


Problems From Male Side

Many problems which lead to repeat breeding

  • Male carrier of venereal disease e.g. vibriosisi, compylobacteresis brucella etc. if natural mating or semen from infected bull

  • Morphological effect in male e.g. blockage of epidydimus and mostly in natural mating.

  • Sometime cryptochid testes or testicular degeneration in which no sperms or oligospermia.

  • If no. of abnormal sperms are more (semen quality is very low)

  • Sometime  acrosomal defects, head defects

  • If vas deferens not properly functioning

  • If the bull is excessively used (service a lot of females in a day). Then there is depletion of sperms.

  • Segmental aplasia of spermatic duct: sperm normally produce but can not pass as no ejaculation. A spermatocoele will be formed at blockage site.

  • Due to blockage of vas deference

  • Inflammation of accessory sex glands: prostitis, seminal vesiculitis. Chemical composition of seminal plasma change there will be death of sperms and repeat breeding.

  • Fibrosis of accessory sex glands

  • Non availability of the bull

  • Poor quality semen, infected semen

  • Chromosomal defects in sperms

  • Immunodepression or immunogenic semen auto immune infertility


Problems from Veterinarian or Technician Side

  • The part played by veterinarian or technician

  • Lack of know how. The doctor or technician is not well trained or well experienced. He is unable to properly diagnose stage of estrous and time of ovulation and time of insemination.  

  • He is untrained to detect the reproductive problem e.g. delayed ovulation, endometritis, cystic ovaries or morphological abnormality

  • He is professionally dishonest

  • He is professionally inexperienced about handling of semen i.e. storage of semen, picking of dose, loading of gun.


Part of Owner

  • Owner is not properly vigilant about the animals

  • Even vigilant owners sometime missed the estrous due to silent nature of estrous

  • He is unable to arrange natural mating or AI

  • Even if he is able to arrange it is too late or too early

  • The doctor or technician says it is infection it will not conceive even then owner says to inseminate.

  

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